Common Metals in Machining
Unlike other metal elements, aluminum is not present in nature as a direct metal element, but is extracted from bauxite containing 50% alumina (also known as alumina). Aluminum, which exists in minerals in this form, is also one of the most abundant metal elements on our planet.When aluminum was first introduced, it was not immediately applied to people's lives. Later, a number of new products for their unique functions and features gradually came out, and this high-tech material gradually became more and more widely available. Although the application history of aluminum is relatively short, the output of aluminum products on the market now far exceeds the sum of other non-ferrous metal products. Material characteristics: flexible and plastic, easy to make alloy, high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, easy to conduct heat and heat, recyclable.
Typical applications: vehicle skeletons, aircraft parts, kitchen utensils, packaging, and furniture. Aluminum is also often used to reinforce some large building structures.
Copper plays a very important role in modern society: it is widely used in building structures as a carrier for transmitting electricity. In addition, it has been used by many people of different cultural backgrounds as raw materials for body decorations for thousands of years. . Copper is an excellent electrical conductor whose electrical conductivity is second only to silver. From the time history of people using metal materials, copper is the second-largest metal for humans after gold. This is largely due to the fact that copper mines are easily mined and the copper industry is relatively easy to separate from copper mines.
The most common in machining is brass and red copper.
Material properties: good corrosion resistance, excellent thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, hardness, flexibility, ductility, post-polishing, unique effect. Typical applications: wire, engine coils, printed circuits, roofing materials, pipe materials, heating materials, jewelry, cookware. It is also one of the main alloying ingredients for making bronze.
Stainless steel is an alloy made by incorporating chromium, nickel and other metal elements into the steel. Its non-rusting property is derived from the chromium component of the alloy. The chromium forms a firm, self-repairing chrome oxide film on the surface of the alloy. This film is invisible to the naked eye. The ratio of stainless steel to nickel we usually refer to is generally 18:10.At the beginning of the 20th century, stainless steel began to be introduced into the product design field as an elemental concept. Designers developed many new products around its toughness and corrosion resistance, involving many areas that have never been seen before. This series of design attempts is very revolutionary: for example, equipment that can be reused after disinfection is first seen in the medical industry.
Material characteristics: health care, anti-corrosion, fine surface treatment, high rigidity, can be formed by various processing techniques, and difficult to carry out cold processing. Typical applications: austenitic stainless steel is mainly used in household products, industrial pipes and building structures; martensitic stainless steel is mainly used to make tools and turbine blades; ferritic stainless steel is corrosion-resistant, mainly used in durable washing machines and In boiler parts; composite stainless steel is more resistant to corrosion and is often used in aggressive environments.
The reason why cast iron has such a large number of uses is mainly because of its excellent fluidity and its ease of casting into various complex forms. Cast iron is actually the name of a mixture of multiple elements, including carbon, silicon and iron. The higher the carbon content, the better the flow characteristics during the casting process.
Material properties: excellent fluidity, low cost, good wear resistance, low solidification shrinkage, very brittle, high compressive strength, good machinability.
Typical uses: Cast iron has been used for hundreds of years in applications such as construction, bridges, engineering components, home, and kitchen appliances.
Zinc castings are very common in our daily lives: the material under the surface of the watch's watch, faucets, electronic components, etc., zinc has a very high degree of corrosion resistance, which makes it have another basic function, namely As a surface coating material for steel. In addition to these functions, zinc is also an alloy material for synthesizing brass with copper. Its corrosion resistance is not just applied to steel surface coatings - it also helps to strengthen our human immune system.
Material characteristics: health care, anti-corrosion, excellent castability, excellent corrosion resistance, high strength, high hardness, low cost of raw materials, low melting point, creep resistance, easy to form alloy with other metals, health care, at room temperature Fragile, ductile at around 100 degrees Celsius.
Typical use: Electronic components. Zinc is one of the alloying materials that form bronze. Zinc is also hygienic and resistant to corrosion. In addition, zinc is also used in roofing materials, photo engraving discs, mobile phone antennas, and shutter devices in cameras.
Titanium has excellent properties such as low density, high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance. The density of titanium alloy is half of that of steel and its strength is similar to that of steel. Titanium is resistant to high temperature and low temperature. High strength is maintained over a wide temperature range of -253°C to 500°C. These advantages are essential for space metals. Titanium alloy is a good material for making rocket engine casings and satellites and spacecrafts. It is called "space metal".
Titanium is an inert metal. Because of the "idle" of titanium, there is no chemical reaction when the substance comes into contact with it. That is to say, because titanium has high corrosion resistance and high stability, it does not affect its essence after long-term contact with humans, so it does not cause human allergy. It is the only one that has no influence on human autonomic nerves and taste. Metals are known as "pro-biometals."
Material properties: very high strength, excellent corrosion resistance, poor cold workability, good weldability, about 40% lighter than steel, 60% heavier than aluminum, low electrical conductivity, low thermal expansion, high melting point.
Typical Application: golf clubs, tennis rackets, laptops, cameras, luggage, surgical implants, aircraft skeletons, chemical tools, and marine equipment. In addition, titanium is also used as a white pigment for paper, painting, and plastics.
Common Plastic in CNC Machining
PA, commonly known as nylon, has won the attention of people due to its unique low specific gravity, high tensile strength, wear resistance, good self-lubricating properties, excellent impact toughness, and the combination of rigidity and flexibility. In addition, it is easy to process, high in efficiency and light in weight. (Only 1/7 of metal), can be processed into various products instead of metal, widely used in the automotive and transportation industries. Typical products include pump impellers, fan blades, valve seats, bushings, bearings, various instrument panels, automotive electrical instruments, hot and cold air conditioning valves, etc., and each car consumes 3.6 to 4 kg of PA products. PA has the largest consumption ratio in the automotive industry, followed by electrical and electronic.
PA plastics are reinforced PA, toughened PA, flame retardant PA, filled PA and alloy PA depending on the purpose of modification.
In order to obtain a PA material having higher strength and heat distortion temperature, an inorganic or organic fiber or filler is added to the PA matrix, and a high strength PA composite material is obtained by blend extrusion. There are many varieties of enhanced PA, and almost all PA materials can be made into enhanced varieties.
The main commercial varieties are: enhanced PA6, enhanced PA66, enhanced PA46, enhanced PA1010, enhanced PA610 and so on. The largest production is enhanced PA6 and PA66. Commonly used PA reinforcing materials are glass fiber, carbon fiber, and aramid fiber.
Acrylic, also known as PMMA or plexiglass, has the advantages of high transparency, low price, and easy machining. It is a glass substitute material that is often used frequently.
Its molding methods include casting, injection molding, machining, and thermoforming. In particular, injection molding can be mass-produced, with simple process and low cost. Its raw material characteristics are: colorless and transparent, light transmittance of 90% - 92%, strong toughness, more than 10 times larger than silicon glass. Excellent optical, insulating, processability and weather resistance. It is dissolved in organic solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, benzene, toluene dichloroethane, chloroform and acetone. It has high transparency and brightness, good heat resistance, and is tough, hard and rigid. The heat distortion temperature is 80 °C and the bending strength is 110Mpa. The density is 1.14-1.20g/cc, the deformation temperature is 76--116°C, and the molding shrinkage is 0.2-0.8%. Linear expansion coefficient 0.00005—0.00009/°C, heat distortion temperature 68--69°C (74--107°C)
application: 1.Building applications: window, soundproof doors and windows, lighting hood, telephone booth, etc.; 2. Advertising applications: light boxes, signboards, signs, display stands, etc. ;3. Traffic applications: doors and windows of trains, cars, etc. ;4. Medical applications: baby incubators, various surgical medical equipment, civilian supplies: bathroom facilities, handicrafts, cosmetics, stents, aquariums, etc. ;5. Industrial applications: instrument surface plates and covers. ;6. Lighting applications: fluorescent lamps, chandeliers, street lamp covers, etc.